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Debulking

Debulking

A type of surgery that is used to remove as much of the cancer as possible to make chemotherapy or radiation possible or more effective. Debulking may be performed when it is not possible to remove all of a tumor.

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Depression

A persistent feeling of sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, tiredness and poor concentration. Mild depression can often be treated without medicines but people with moderate or severe depression may need long-term treatment with medications, professional psychological counselling, or both.

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Dietician

A healthcare professional who is an expert in diet and nutrition and can advise patients on how to eat healthily.

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Differentiation/Differentiated Cells

In normal cells, differentiation is the process that changes a general, less specialized cell to a more specialized cell that has a specific job in the body. In tumor cells, differentiation refers to how developed the cells are. Differentiated tumor cells look like normal cells. Undifferentiated, or poorly differentiated, tumor cells don’t have the structure of normal cells, and don’t work the way normal cells do. Poorly differentiated tumor cells usually have a better chance of being malignant.

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Diuretics

Agents that help the body get rid of excess fluid.

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DNA

The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next. Also called deoxyribonucleic acid.

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Dopamine

A hormone and neurotransmitter released by the brain. High levels of dopamine in the urine or blood may indicate the presence of NETs.

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Duodenum

The first part of the small intestine, connected to the stomach. The duodenum gets enzymes from the pancreas and chemicals from the liver and the gallbladder to help with digestion.

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Dyspnea

Difficult or labored breathing.

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Echocardiogram

An imaging test that uses ultrasound to produce moving images of the heart and blood flow through the heart’s valves and structures. Also called a cardiac echo or simply an echo.

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Edema

An abnormal accumulation of fluid in connective tissues or body cavities.

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Electrolytes

Substances such as sodium or potassium that can conduct electricity and are necessary to regulate most of the processes in the body.

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Endocrine System

The system of the body that generates hormones, the chemical messengers that allow the body to function in many ways. Hormones control many bodily functions such as metabolism, mood, growth, and reproduction.

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Endocrinologist

A doctor that specialises in diagnosing and treating conditions caused by hormonal or endocrine imbalances in the body.

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Endoscope

A medical device consisting of a long, thin, flexible tube that has a light and a video camera at the end and is inserted into the body via the mouth. Endoscopes can be used to look for cancers that cause no symptoms. They can also be used to collect a sample of tissue (biopsy) for further examination.

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Endoscopy

A nonsurgical procedure that is used to look inside a person’s digestive tract using an endoscope.

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Endoscopic Resection

A surgical procedure where a thin instrument consisting of a light, a lens, and a surgical tool is inserted through the mouth and down through the digestive tract to the site of the tumor.

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Everolimus

An oral medication that is used in the treatment of some cancers, such as breast cancer, kidney cancer, and NETs. Everolimus is also used to suppress the effects of the immune system to avoid organ transplants being rejected by the body.

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Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

A radioactive substance or tracer that is used in a PET scan to identify the presence of certain tumor types within the body.

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Flushing

A redness caused by vasodilation that commonly occurs on the face, trunk, or abdomen.

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