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Carcinoid

Carcinoid

Has the same meaning as NET or GEP-NET. The words may be used in place of one another.

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Carcinoid Crisis

Carcinoid crisis is a dangerous condition that can occur at the time of surgery. It is characterized by a drop in blood pressure, sometimes accompanied by an abnormally fast heart rate. Carcinoid crisis can be fatal.

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Carcinogenesis

The process by which normal cells become cancer cells.

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Carcinoid Heart Disease

A specific variety of heart disease that can come from not regulated or prolonged Carcinoid Syndrome. Carcinoid heart disease can cause part of the heart to become obstructed by fibrous deposits, limiting its ability to pump. The exact cause is unknown, but doctors suspect that excess serotonin in the body may play a role.

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Carcinoid Syndrome

A set of symptoms that occur when a functional NET that releases the hormone serotonin begins to spread or metastasize. The symptoms may be sudden or severe. This is not to be confused with Serotonin Syndrome which is caused by the use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.

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Carcinoid Tumors or Carcinoids

A type of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The term is used to describe gastrointestinal NETs or gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs).

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Carcinoma

Cancer that starts in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.

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Catecholamines

A type of neurohormone (a chemical that is made by nerve cells and used to send signals to other cells). Catecholamines are also a collective term for the hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. High levels of catecholamines in the urine or blood may indicate the presence of NETs.

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Chemoembolization

Injection of a chemotherapeutic drug into a blood vessel, along with an agent that causes the vessel to close, ensuring that the chemotherapeutic agent remains concentrated in the organ supplied by the vessel.

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Chemotherapy

The use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by affecting their ability to grow.

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Chromogranin A or CgA

A protein that is secreted by neuroendocrine tissues. It may be used as a marker in blood tests or tissue samples to detect NETs. It is one of the most important tumor markers for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs).

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Chronic

Persisting over a long period of time.

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Colonoscopy

A test that examines of the inside of the colon (gut). During this test a thin, tube-like instrument called a colonoscope is inserted into the anus and passed up inside the gut. The colonoscope has a very small light and video camera at the end for viewing the inside of the gut.

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Computed Tomography (CT)

A scan that shows a thin cross-sectional slice through the body, achieved by taking a series of low-dose X-rays. CT scans are one of the main imaging techniques used for diagnosing and monitoring NETs.

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Crohn’s Disease

A condition that causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal (digestive system). It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s can affect any area of the digestive system from the mouth to the anus.

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Cryoablation

A procedure that involves freezing cancer cells to kill them. A thin surgical instrument called a cryoprobe is inserted through the skin, directly into tumors to freeze them. After treatment, the body’s immune system gets rid of the dead tissue over a few weeks. Also known as cryotherapy or cryosurgery.

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Cryoprobe

A long, thin pointed surgical instrument used, to apply extreme cold to tissues.

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Cryosurgery

Also known as cryoablation, a procedure that involves freezing cancer cells to kill them. A thin surgical instrument called a cryoprobe is inserted through the skin, directly into tumors to freeze them. After treatment, the body’s immune system gets rid of the dead tissue over a few weeks. Also known as cryotherapy or cryosurgery.

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Cyanosis

A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin due to a deficiency in blood oxygen levels.

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Cytotoxic Therapy

Any treatment or process that kills cells. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are two forms of cytotoxic therapy used to kill cancer cells.

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